Apricot cultivation in Belarus: from variety selection to agricultural technology

Apricot cultivation in Belarus: from variety selection to agricultural technology

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Apricots in Belarus are currently not as common as in the Caucasus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and other southern countries. Nevertheless, this healthy and tasty fruit culture is of constant interest to amateur gardeners.

New breeding achievements, including by Belarusian specialists, made it possible to grow a thermophilic crop in more northern latitudes and even the so-called risky farming zones.

Characteristics and selection rules

Belarus, located mostly in the forest zone, is characterized by the presence of a large number of plains, many rivers, lakes and wetlands. A significant area is occupied by forests and meadows, which alternate with vast annually cultivated lands. In Belarus, one can distinguish a moderately warm and humid northern climatic region, a warm and moderately humid central region, as well as a warm and unstable humid southern climatic zone.

The climate of Belarus is temperate continental and has a fairly high humidity. The main soil types here are podzolic, sod and marsh. In the northwestern part of Belarus, a soil-forming process of a burozem type is observed, and drained peatlands of Polesye are characterized by signs of solonchak soil formation.

Apricot is most prevalent mainly in amateur gardening in the southern and southwestern regions of Belarus. In the north of Belarus, fruiting can be obtained only from the least demanding of solar heat and the most winter-hardy local forms and new hybrids. At the stage of deep dormancy of the fruit crop, in winter, the varieties correctly selected for cultivation are able to withstand a short-term temperature drop to -30-32 ° С.

How to grow apricots in the middle lane

The best mid-early grades

Early apricot varieties are always popular among Belarusian gardeners due to the ability to form a crop as soon as possible. The fruits ripen completely, depending on the variety, from the last decade of June to mid-July.

Zoned varietyBotanical tree descriptionCharacterization of fruits and pulpAdvantages and disadvantages
"The memory of Shevchuk"Medium growth, with a powerful and strong crownFruits are large in size, weighing up to 75.5 g, slightly compressed, orange with a reddish blush. The pulp is orange, tender and juicy, sweet and sourA self-fertile variety resistant to kleasterosporiasis
"Know-it-all"Large and powerful, fast-growing, with a rounded and fairly dense crownFruits are one-dimensional, roundish, weighing 33-52 g, orange, slightly pubescent. The pulp is light orange, sour-sweetIncreased frost resistance, moderate resistance to kleasterosporiosis and high resistance to moniliosis
"Rattle"Strong-growing trees with spherical and sparse crownFruits are large in size, weighing up to 55-68 g, round-oval, squeezed laterally, dull orange. Pulp of orange color, dense texture, sour-sweetSelf-fertile, immobile, transportable variety

The best medium-late varieties

Over the past years, experienced scientists and breeders of Belarus have been actively developing new introduced forms suitable for cultivation in amateur gardening in the country. Mid-season varieties and hybrids are mainly for table use and fully form the crop in the first half of July.

Zoned varietyBotanical tree descriptionCharacterization of fruits and pulpAdvantages and disadvantages
SpadchynaRapid growth, the presence of a spreading and dense crownFruits are medium-sized, weighing up to 35.5 g, roundish, yellow with a blush, with slight pubescence. The flesh is pale yellow, juicy, sweet and sourSelf-fertile and frost-resistant, no scab resistance
"Memory of Govorukhin"Average growth force, the presence of a spreading and dense crownFruits are medium-sized, one-dimensional, roundish, weighing up to 52 g, orange, slightly pubescent. Sweet and sour fleshIncreased frost resistance, high field resistance to scab, increased resistance to claustosporiosis, average resistance to moniliosis
"Memory of Loyko"Fast-growing, with a rounded and medium thickened crownFruits are medium-sized, one-dimensional, roundish, weighing up to 45 g, light yellow, with slight pubescence. The pulp is beige-orange, sweet and sourHigh frost resistance, high field resistance to moniliosis, May be affected by claustosporiosis

Landing rules

Like any stone fruit heat-loving crop, apricot fully develops and bears fruit only in a correctly selected area. It is not allowed to plant apricot seedlings on waterlogged, heavy soils or in areas with close to the surface occurrence of groundwater. It is very important not to plant apricot in places with low relief, where there is a risk of stagnation of cold air masses. A good protection for apricot seedlings from gusts of northern wind can be a wall of a building or a fence on a personal plot.

In order to grow a productive fruit tree, it is necessary to plant apricot seedlings on fertile and quickly heated soils. The landing technology is quite simple:

  • planting should be done in the early spring, even before the moment when the sap flow and budding of the buds begin;
  • soil for apricot seedlings must be prepared in advance, and the average volume of the planting pit is at least 70 cubic meters. cm;

  • even when planting in high enough areas, it is very important to provide the apricot root system with high-quality drainage from gravel or gravel;
  • it is necessary to pour a nutritious soil mixture on the drainage layer, consisting of garden soil, wood ash, lime, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt and humus.

Currently, Belarus practices several methods of planting apricot seedlings for cultivation in home gardening:

  • planting seeds of well-adapted and zoned apricot varieties;
  • propagation of fruit stands by grafting after spring pruning;
  • planting seedlings purchased in nurseries or stores selling high-quality planting material.

Apricot propagation is preferable to carry out in the spring. The subsequent yield of fruit plantings will depend on the care of the planted plants.

Growing technology

Care for planted apricots consists in the following activities:

  • watering in the first five years after planting should be regular and carried out on shallow furrows arranged around the stem of plants;
  • for watering an adult plant should use at least five liters of water heated in the sun;
  • after watering or rains, the soil in near-stem circles must be subjected to shallow loosening;
  • the first top dressing must be applied approximately three or four years after planting, using organics in the form of bird droppings, compost and mullein;
  • as the main mineral fertilizers, preference should be given to superphosphates, nitrate and potassium salts;
  • it is advisable to carry out the main pruning in the early spring, forming a crown in five main skeletal branches;
  • To protect against diseases and pests, it is necessary to whitewash trunks of fruit trees in a timely manner, remove all fallen leaves and rotten fruits, and also treat the crown and soil with special insectofungicidal agents.

How to plant an apricot

According to breeders, the most successful for cultivation in Belarus are zoned Belarusian and Russian apricot varieties, which have excellent winter hardiness, resistance to diseases and pests, form fruits with a delicate taste and marketable appearance.