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Planting and caring for columnar apple trees in Siberia, cultivation and the best varieties

Planting and caring for columnar apple trees in Siberia, cultivation and the best varieties


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Due to the harsh climate in Siberia, not all varieties of fruit crops are able to adequately tolerate subzero temperatures and sudden cold snaps. But thanks to breeders, frost-resistant plants were bred, which not only have a high degree of resistance to adverse environmental factors, but also give a bountiful harvest. The main thing is to choose the right columnar apple trees for Siberia.

Characteristics of apple trees for Siberia

A distinctive feature of columnar apple trees is the absence of side branches, which is explained by the presence of a special Co gene. In such trees, branches grow from the central conductor at an acute angle, practically along it. Due to their appearance, they resemble pyramidal poplars.

The trunk of columnar apple trees is quite thickened, small branches are formed on it, on the tops of which flower buds are located. Often, instead of side branches, fruits, spears or ringlets are formed. On thick shoots, there are shortened internodes.

In dwarf varieties, the tendency to branching is less, if compared with medium-sized plants, it is 1.5-3 times, and with tall plants - 4 times.

After the third or fourth year, the growth of lateral branches in columnar apple trees stops. In the event of injury to the apical bud, the growth of the tree stops and the active formation of lateral branches begins. Therefore, it is recommended to keep the apple tree growing point at least in the first 2-3 years.

Columnar apple trees attract the attention of gardeners with their early maturity, the collection of the first fruits is possible as early as 2-3 years of the tree's life. After the fifth year, the harvest becomes more and more plentiful, and from the seventh - stably high, but this is subject to proper agricultural technology and care.

The duration of the ability to actively bear fruit in such apple trees is 15-20 years, after which most of the ringlets die. It is possible to extend the life of a tree only if strong or medium-sized varieties are grown on seed stocks through the grafting procedure.

How to choose a variety?

To choose the right variety for difficult Siberian conditions, you must adhere to the following recommendations:

  • Frost resistance index. For the cultivation of apple trees in Siberia, plants with a high level of endurance and winter hardiness are suitable, which are not afraid of minus temperatures of -50 degrees. In addition, they should be distinguished by the ability to bear fruit even with a lack of sunlight and moisture.
  • Productivity indicator. The best option is high-yielding varieties that bear fruit 2-3 years after grafting.
  • The timing of the ripening of apples. For planting in the northern regions, it is recommended to choose varieties with an early and medium ripening period, the fruits of which can already be removed at the beginning of the summer or autumn season. It is not advisable to acquire winter varieties, otherwise, at the end of August, due to night frosts, the crop may deteriorate and not be stored for a long time.

For cultivation in Siberia, varieties with a high level of frost resistance, excellent immunity and the ability to give a bountiful harvest with minimal maintenance are suitable.

For information! Early ripening varieties are not intended for long-term storage. Fruits are harvested in July and lasts until August; keeping rates for such fruits are low.

Planting and leaving

To grow a quantitative crop in Siberia, you need to know all the intricacies of planting and caring for columns.

Selection of seedlings

Correctly selected planting material will allow you to get rid of troubles with a young apple tree in the future. Annual plants purchased in specialized retail outlets and nurseries are best rooted. When choosing seedlings of columnar apple trees, you should pay attention to:

  • the presence of tags explaining the age and stock of the tree;
  • root system, it must be closed. The seedling will more easily transfer further transplantation, and quickly adapt to a new place;
  • the presence of several buds on a tree. On annual seedlings, there are no lateral processes, they are replaced by buds;
  • the state of the root system of an open type. It should not show traces of disease damage, as well as mechanical damage. During transportation, the roots of such seedlings should be in a moist substrate.

For information! For successful cultivation in Siberia, it is more effective to choose zoned varieties that are distinguished by their ability to quickly adapt to harsh climatic conditions.

Landing dates

In order for a young plant to take root better, it should be planted in the spring, when the soil is sufficiently warmed up. The main thing is to be in time before the start of intensive sap flow.

Growing technology

The landing pit is prepared in advance, 14 days in advance. The soil extracted from the pit is mixed with 3-4 buckets of organic composition, superphosphate (100 g), potassium fertilizer (100 g) and a handful of dolomite flour. Then drainage is laid on the bottom of the pit in the form of fine gravel, brick battle. A part of the prepared soil mixture is laid on top.

On the day of planting, the root system of the young apple tree should be examined again. If it is a little salted, then the seedling is placed in a container of water for 10 hours. Trees in containers are watered abundantly with water, so it will be easier to get them out of them.

For better survival in the harsh Siberian conditions, experienced gardeners are advised to prune the roots of a columnar apple tree. When planting plants, they need to be tilted a little, which will allow them to bend when sheltering them for the winter. When landing in Siberia with a mild climate, you can do without this technique, it is enough to do everything according to the traditional scheme.

Placing a seedling in a hole, spread its roots and gently sprinkle it with earth. The root collar should be above ground level. Having compacted the soil, it is abundantly moistened and mulched with foliage, peat, sawdust. To support the young plant, a support is installed nearby.

Agrotechnics

Unlike other regions, columnar apple trees in Siberia require a slightly different care, especially when it comes to preparing plants for winter. To get tasty and juicy apples, you need to moisturize the trees regularly. To improve the quality of moisture supply to the roots of the plant, it is necessary to make bumpers along the edge of the trunk circle. Water consumption for one apple tree is 1-2 buckets.

It is not worth moistening the trees too much, the signal for watering will be the drying of the top layer of the soil by 4-5 cm. In the dry summer season, the frequency of watering is increased, the moistening procedure is performed every day. The sprinkling method has a particularly beneficial effect on plants.

When grown in Siberia, columnar apple trees are fed three times. The first feeding procedure is performed in the spring during the active growing season (nitrogen compounds), the second after 3-4 weeks in the bud formation phase (phosphorus and potassium mixtures) and the third - after 3-4 weeks during fruit setting (potassium and nitrogen). In the fall, you do not need to apply fertilizers.

Preparing for the winter

Even when planting frost-resistant trees there is no guarantee that they will be able to withstand severe Siberian frosts. It is recommended to protect columnar apple trees with a covering material, wrapping the trunk with a netting or spruce branches.

Shaping and pruning

In the first year after planting on trees, all ovaries should be removed, except for 1-2 pieces for fruit sampling. For 2-3 years, half of the ovaries are cut off, leaving more and more flowers every year. Pruning is performed in order to free the tree from deformed and weak branches. In Siberia, the top of the apple tree is often shortened to the first strong shoot.

Apple varieties by regions of Siberia

Considering that Siberia is distinguished by a fairly large territory, where climatic features differ somewhat, it is worthwhile to correctly approach the choice of the best variety for a particular area.

Eastern Siberia

For planting, varieties with winter hardiness above 40 degrees are used. Iksha and Vasyugan have proven themselves well.

Western Siberia

The recommended variant of columnar apple trees is semi-dwarf varieties, no more than 2 m high. President and Medoc are especially popular.

Testimonials

Columnar apple trees, according to reviews of Siberian gardeners, are quite suitable for growing in harsh climates. The main thing is to choose the right variety and provide the plant with proper conditions and care.


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