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Grade "Pinot" (from french pinot) refers to the technical, or wine, special grape varieties that are widely used in wine production. From the French language the name translates as "bump", which is due to the external similarity of small and dense grapes of this variety with coniferous cones.
The cloned plant is high-yielding and was obtained as a result of breeding a population that was introduced from Bessarabia, where the plant came from France. Clone selection and reproduction were carried out by E. B. Ivanova, P. P. Blagonravov and P. V. Korobets. For state testing, the variety was adopted in 1970 and has since been cultivated on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Moldova and the North Caucasus.
The morphological features and biological properties of the Pinot variety are widely studied and described in detail in several sources. The clones included in its composition have differences in one or a pair of characters.
Bushes are vigorous. The main form of Pinot grapes is characterized by a low level of productivity and the presence of red-brown autumn color. Some varieties are characterized by higher productivity and have a golden or golden green color scheme of autumn foliage staining.
The crown with the first leaves on young shoots has a dense pubescence and regional wine red staining. Matured annual shoots are distinguished by a light brown color with a darkish staining of the nodes, as well as shortened internodes.
The leaves are medium-sized, with a length of about 15 cm and a width of slightly less than 14 cm. The leaves are round, three-lobed, five-lobed, with a weak and medium type of dissection. Bisexual flowers. The clusters are medium in length and width, have a cylindrical-conical shape, sufficient or significant density. Cluster legs are short. The mass of the bunch can vary from 80 to 150 g.
Technical characteristics of berries
From budding to the technical maturity of grape berries, 140 to 150 days pass. Depending on the variety and variety, the sorting group "Pinot" is characterized by the following composition in a percentage ratio:
- for seeds, peels and dense parts of the pulp - 19.9,
- for ridges - 4.6,
- for juice - 7.5.
The berries, depending on the variety, are rounded or slightly oval, sometimes deformed, often dark blue or with a blue spring. The skin is quite thin, but with a characteristic strength. The pulp is juicy and tender. Juice does not have a pronounced color and has a harmonious taste. The average number of seeds per berry varies from one to three. The average sugar content is about 20%.
Grapes "Pinot Grigio": harvest
Currently, several varieties of grapes belonging to the Pinot varietal group are widely grown.
Italian white grape variety Pinot grigio is popular and in ancient times was called "Frento", or Fromenteau. The Pinot Grigio grape variety can be found not only in its historical homeland, but also on the territory of such wine-making countries as Germany, France, the USA and Hungary, as well as in Switzerland, where the variety is commonly called Pinot Gris, or Pinot Gris.
This common variety of technical or wine grapes is used in the production of white wines. A feature of the variety from the ecological and geographical group of Western European varieties is the coloring of the skin of the berries in a reddish color.
Grade Pinot meunier, or "Black Riesling", is very much in demand in the production of wines and gives the finished product a rich and refined fruity aroma. Word "meunier" originates from the old French language and means "miller" in translation.
The variety is assigned to the ecological-geographical group of Western European grape varieties and is most often grown in France. Used in the production of champagne and many other sparkling wines.
Wine Grape Variety Pinot blanc represents a very old mutation variety Pinot gris or Pinot Grigio. The bushes have medium or higher average growth power. Such grapes are massively grown in Italy, France, Australia, Austria, as well as in Germany and America. It is characterized by an early ripening period, stable yield and is widely used as a raw material in the manufacture of expensive white wines.
Grade Franc pinot refers to grapes of early ripening. The plant is characterized by sufficient drought tolerance and is recommended for cultivation on calcareous soils and dry hilly slopes. When grown on the plains or in the lowlands, mass shedding of flowers and ovaries is observed, as well as frequent freezing of the vine.
In terms of cold resistance, the variety is inferior to Riesling and has medium resistance to damage by fungal diseases.
Grade Pinot noir translates as "black cone" and owes its appearance to the French region of Burgundy. It is grown almost everywhere, but mainly in territories characterized by a temperate cool climate.
A significant amount of grapes of this variety is cultivated in the territory of the Champagne wine region, where it is widely used in the production of white sparkling wines. The Pinot Noir grape variety is one of the oldest and most common varieties in winemaking.
Landing and care
Planting grapes of the Pinot grape group must be carried out in accordance with the rules of agricultural technology and taking into account the following features:
- the landing site should be open and sunny, and also located on the relatively gentle southwestern and southern slopes;
- the most suitable soils for growing grapes of this variety group are represented by humus-carbonate and calcareous soil;
- a couple of months before landing, you need to prepare separate landing holes or common trenches;
- Pino bushes are planted with a distance in the row of about 80 cm and with a row spacing of at least 1 m;
- the larger the layer of fertile soil in the zone of the root system of a plant, the faster its growth occurs and earlier fruiting occurs.
The planting procedure should be carried out immediately after the acquisition of seedlings, which will insure planting material from drying out the root system. Saplings need to be soaked for 24 hours in clean water, after which the root system is shortened and the shoots are trimmed into three or four buds. After processing the root system with clay mash, the seedling is planted in the prepared pit.
Measures for the care of Pino grapes boils down to the strict implementation of the rules of agricultural technology. In the first three years after planting, mandatory procedures are performed to ensure the proper development of planted plants:
- To increase productivity, a complex of agrotechnical measures is used, including long trimming and the formation of fan four-arm bushes;
- the early period of bud blooming requires the use of late spring pruning, as well as effective snow retention;
- when cultivating in the territory of cover vineyard, remove the protection from the bushes in the spring period as late as possible;
- the soil under the bushes requires regular cultivation and removal of weeds that deplete the soil;
- in the spring, re-cultivation is carried out and katarovka is carried out, consisting in the removal of thin roots with the subsequent filling of the bare stem;
- at the stage of active vegetation, vineyards must be regularly watered, adding at least 10 liters of water for each plant;
- significantly overgrown shoots must be broken off and tied to wooden pegs;
- Mineral and organic fertilizers are applied three times per season: before mass flowering, after flowering, and after the formation of the ovaries.
Starting from the fourth year, with the help of pruning, plants should be regularly given a shape that can be either fan, or cordon or standard. It should be remembered that grape cultivation by cuttings is still the simplest and most inexpensive way of growing. To protect against pests, systemic insecticides of narrowly targeted action are used.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the rules of choice, as well as the features of self-production of a press for grapes.
Depending on the growing area, Pinot may be subject to various diseases, which can be both the result of illiterate care, and the impact of external factors:
- the appearance on the root system of sagging and growths may be the result of damage to grapes grape phylloxera;
- growths on the stem is the first sign of damage to the plant by bacterial root and shoot cancer;
- quite often mealybugs parasitize parasitic grapes, acacia false shields, grape pads, and grape leaf mites, or Calepitrimerus;
- if in the summer period black spots are observed on the site of the lower internodes, oblong and burst in the center of the spot, and in the autumn the bark acquires a white-gray color with a large number of dark gray dots, then the plant is affected black spotting;
- yellowing of the leaves at the apical part of the shoots with subsequent death is characteristic of such a formidable disease as chlorosis;
- the change in leaf staining to dull and brown with the presence of numerous puncture punctures of black color is the result of damage to the plant spider mites;
- lightening or discoloration of the mosaic type leaves indicates a lack of boron, and discoloration of the leaves along the edges and between the veins indicates lack of magnesium. The lack of potassium top dressing provokes the appearance of purple, and then brown staining of the upper leaf plate;
- the appearance of folded leaves on a grape is the result of damage to the plant by such a pest insect as weevil pipe-driver.
In addition, grapes can be affected by a grape leaflet, grape felt mite, and scoop caterpillars. It may also require protection against infection by degeneration, white mosaic, or variegated, as well as rot and downy mildew.
Grape Varieties for Wine Production
The cultivation of grapes has always been considered the privilege of gardeners in the southern regions, however, adherence to agricultural practices and the use of modern technology allows you to get a good harvest of sun berries almost throughout our country.