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The spring of 2016 is already very close, and the first garden work will begin soon, including the planting of grape seedlings. Only knowing how to land the acquired material correctly, you can count on getting a good harvest. Among other things, it is necessary to take into account the cultivation region and the type of planting material, which can be represented not only by seedlings, but also by cuttings and vegetative plants.
Advantages and disadvantages of spring planting of grapes with seedlings
It is possible to plant grape seedlings not only in spring, but also in autumn. However, it is spring planting that is most often practiced by gardeners and winegrowers, due to some biological characteristics of the plant.
|Benefits of Spring Planting||Disadvantages of spring planting|
|Plants planted in the spring have time to get accustomed and get well before winter frosts. However, soil preparation should be carried out in the fall. The performed increase in soil fertility positively affects the survival rate of the plant.||A definite minus is the lack of moisture, which is easily compensated by more frequent and abundant watering of plants and the use of mulch in the form of sawdust or humus.|
|In addition, there are varieties that, with such planting in the second year, form an already quite worthy crop. With autumn planting, fruiting will come a year later.||The implementation of unjustifiably early or late planting often negatively affects the seedlings and provokes defeat by diseases or pests.|
|In the spring, it is much easier to determine the correct planting date, since in the fall a sharp drop in temperature is often very unexpected and can destroy the plant||In addition, in the spring it is more difficult to acquire high-quality planting material, you may encounter a limited selection of varieties and hybrids, and the seedlings themselves can be frostbitten or dried|
Laying a vineyard is a very responsible event, and before embarking on grape planting in the spring, you must carefully check all the planting material. Seedlings should be removed from the storage site approximately four weeks before planting and preparatory measures should be taken.
- The roots of grape seedlings should be soaked for two days in clean water at room temperature (it is allowed to use stimulants such as “Heteroauxin” or “Kornevin” when soaking).
- After soaking, carefully inspect the root system of the seedling and remove all damaged and dead roots.
- It is very important to keep the roots on a pair of lower nodes, and the roots located above should be pruned with a sharp knife or secateurs.
- The tips of all roots left should be subjected to refreshing clipping to a length of 25 cm.
- After examining the side shoots, you need to leave only a couple of the strongest and most developed, which are cut by 3-5 kidneys, and all stepsons should be removed.
Grape seedlings, the cut vine is dry and has a pale green or whitish color, are not viable and are not suitable for planting. Dead are also seedlings that have a dry or blackened root system.
Landing pit and its filling
Vineyards are able to actively grow and bear fruit in the same area for several decades, and the durability of the vineyard and its yield will directly depend on how correctly the place for planting is chosen, as well as the quality of preparation of planting pits.
Plants need to be planted in pre-prepared landing pits, which are subject to the following requirements:
- a standard pit should have dimensions of 60 x 80 cm and a depth of about 80 cm;
- a third pit should be filled with a mixture of a pair of humus buckets, five buckets of the top layer of the removed soil and half a bucket of wood ash with the addition of 200 g of superphosphate, 50 g of ammonium nitrate and 200 g of potassium salt.
A well prepared in this way should be shed abundantly with water and wait a while for shrinkage of the soil layers.
How to plant grapes in spring
Features of planting grapes with seedlings
In spring, seedlings should be planted before the swelling of the buds begins. From mid-April to the second decade of May, one-year-old lignified seedlings are planted, and from the last decade of May to the end of June, green vegetative seedlings are planted.
High-quality vegetative grape seedlings have good growth and a height of at least 20 cm, have green leaves. The thickness of the stem should not be too small.
Laying a vineyard by planting vegetative seedlings has recently gained great popularity among winegrowers. Planting pits for such seedlings should be dug in advance and refuel them similarly to planting lignified seedlings.
Landing is carried out very carefully. It is necessary to cut the bottom of the seedling container without touching the root system, and plant a seedling so that the base of the aerial elevation is buried by about 15-17 cm.It is advisable to remove the seedling container from the ground during the preparation of the plant for winter, cutting it to the side.
High-quality rootless one-year-old seedlings in height from the heel should be at least 40-45 cm. The annual growth should have a brown stain and not have any damage. There are at least four well-matured eyes on it. The standard shoot diameter at the base of the stem is more than 0.5 cm, and the total diameter of the green shoots cannot be less than 0.8 cm.
The root system of an annual seedling should be well developed and not affected by rot. The roots should be clean, without swelling, thickenings, ulcers and any other obvious violations. Good and high-quality matured growth is not transparent.
When planting, the upper eye on the root-bearing annual shoot of a seedling should be deepened by 10-15 cm. For grafted plants, the rule according to which the grafting site is 3-5 cm above the soil level should be followed.
Currently, there are two options for planting seedlings that show approximately equally good results when grown.
|Name of landing method||Landing technology|
|Landing in the pits||At the bottom of the landing pit, a low embankment is made from fertile soil and a heel of a seedling is established, the root system of which is straightened and evenly distributed over the embankment. The pit is half-filled with fertile soil, which compacts, and then spills abundantly with water. After absorbing water, the soil is refilled.|
|Landing under scrap||The method is used on past deep processing of loose soils. With the help of scrap, a sufficiently wide hole of the required depth is made into which the root system extracted from the container with a lump of earth is inserted. The roots are half filled with fertile soil, which is compacted, and then spilled abundantly with water. After absorbing water, soil is refilled and the plant is tied to a support.|
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about how to make a wooden arch for grapes with your own hands.
Care of seedlings after planting
The initial years of growing grapes from seedlings are very responsible, and it is during this period that the further development of the plant and its productivity are determined. In the first year after planting, grapes especially need competent care, which will create the most favorable conditions for the growth and future abundant fruiting of the plant.
|Care Event||Execution technology|
|Strong escape choice||It is necessary to break out all the shoots, except for the pair of the strongest and most developed, which grow below others. Then a pair of pegs is installed, to which the remaining shoots are tied|
|Watering seedlings||In conditions of a snowy winter, the first moisture-charging irrigation is carried out after removing the shelter from the overwintered plant and after spring planting. In dry summers, more frequent watering in the morning is needed. The soil around the seedlings should be mulched.|
|Fertilizing seedlings||In the early years, there is an intensive increase in the vegetative mass of plants and it is very important to use nitrogen, potassium and carbon for top dressing. The use of organics in the form of fermented bird droppings and herbal infusions with the addition of ash gives a good result. Optimal is the use of Shine, East, or Baikal|
|Planting||Stepsons take away a large amount of nutrients from young plants, and often provoke thickening of plantings. Pasynkovka eliminates such problems, as well as improves the ventilation of bushes and reduces the risk of grape diseases. The procedure is very simple and consists of plucking only the stepsons that appear. Too long stepsons should be broken out, leaving a couple of leaves|
Spring planting of grape seedlings is not difficult. It is important to remember that planting material intended for spring planting should be stored in basements or special pits. If necessary, to propagate the most valuable grape varieties, it is recommended to practice the cultivation of seedlings from one-eyed or two-eyed cuttings, which can preserve the plant's qualitative characteristics.